If your goal is to get Canadian permanent residence, you have a number of options depending on your individual circumstances and your settlement goals. To begin, you must select whether you will immigrate to Canada as an economic or family class immigrant. If you do not have a close family in Canada, you should look into the more than 100 economic-class immigration programs available.
There are a few different methods to qualify for these programs. They will be targeted at people who are coming to Canada to pursue a career because they are in the economic class.
As a result, the program requirements will consider both your academic achievements and your professional experience. Even if English is your native language, your language skills will be important. Before joining the labor market, it is often advantageous to have Canadian experience.
According to studies, immigrants having a prior job and school experience in Canada can increase their earning potential.
- Study Permits and Post-Graduation Work Permits
- Temporary Foreign Worker Program and International Mobility Program
- Express Entry
- Provincial Nominee Program
- Family Sponsorship
A study permit is required if you wish to study in Canada. Once you’ve received a letter of admission from a Canadian university, you can apply for one. Study permits allow you to lawfully attend school in Canada while also working part-time throughout the school year and full-time during academic breaks.
A Canadian education from a Designated Learning Institution (DLI) is required for certain immigration programs. Many of these universities’ programs will qualify you for a Post-Graduation Work Permit (PGWP), allowing you to work in Canada for up to three years. This combination of work and school experience will pave the way for a variety of immigration options. However, if you have completed your studies and just want to work in Canada, you have a variety of possibilities. Particularly if you are a citizen of the United States.
The Canada-United States-Mexico Agreement (CUSMA), formerly known as NAFTA, makes it easier for Americans to work in Canada. If you can come to Canada on a CUSMA work permit, your Canadian employer avoids the time-consuming and costly Labour Market Impact Assessment (LMIA) process. CUSMA work permits are divided into four categories:
CUSMA Professionals — To be a CUSMA Professional, you must be qualified to work in one of over 60 selected professions and have CUSMA pre-arranged employment in Canada in an occupation that fits your qualifications.
CUSMA Intra-Company Transfer- Company Transfers – CUSMA Intra-Company Transferees must be temporarily relocated to Canada to work for a branch, subsidiary, or subsidiary of their US business. They must hold a position that is managerial, executive, or requires expert knowledge.
CUSMA Traders must show that they intend to conduct considerable goods or services trade between Canada and the United States. The trader must be a supervisor or executive or have responsibilities that need the use of critical abilities.
CUSMA Investors – A CUSMA Investor must show that they have made a significant investment in a new or existing Canadian business and that they intend to develop and direct that firm in Canada. Employees of the principal Investor who are considered essential personnel may also be granted work permits under the CUSMA Investor category.
There are alternative work permit options for you if you do not fit into any of these categories or if you are a U.S. resident with citizenship in another nation.
The main distinction between work permits issued under the Temporary Foreign Worker Program (TFWP) and those issued under the International Mobility Program (IMP) is the requirement for a Labour Market Impact Assessment (LMIA). Employers in Canada must undertake the LMIA process in order to obtain TFWP work permits.
A positive LMIA is essentially a document demonstrating that hiring a foreign worker will have a positive or neutral impact on the Canadian labor market. Employers will frequently be required to show that they publicized the open position for a specific period of time and that no domestic worker was capable of filling it.
Work permits issued by the IMP are primarily based on bilateral agreements with other nations, such as CUSMA. The Global Talent Stream, which has a two-week processing requirement and provides a conduit to Canada for H-1B visa holders in the United States, is another example of this scheme.
These are just a few examples of how to visit Canada on a temporary basis. For people who want to move to the United States permanently, there are a variety of immigration procedures accessible.
The Federal Skilled Worker Program (FSWP), the Federal Skilled Trades Program (FSTP), and the Canadian Experience Class all use Express Entry as an online application management system (CEC). Despite the fact that the pandemic has caused delays in most of these programs, Express Entry was designed to provide a faster path to permanent residency than the traditional paper-based application method. The typical processing time for 80% of applicants was six months, but the pandemic has forced most lines of business to focus on CEC applications, pushing the rest to the back burner.
For candidates who are already in Canada, the CEC is the best Express Entry option. Candidates must have at least one year of Canadian work experience in a skilled occupation as one of the primary eligibility criteria.
The highest-scoring individuals are invited to apply for permanent residency through the Express Entry program. Without an Invitation to Apply, you would not be able to apply for permanent residency (ITA). Immigration, Refugees, and Citizenship Canada (IRCC), Canada’s immigration department, send out invites on a regular basis. If your CRS score isn’t good enough to get you an ITA, you might be able to get a provincial nomination to help you with your Express Entry application.
Provincial Nominee Program (PNP)
Except for Nunavut and Quebec, almost every province and territory in Canada has a Provincial Nominee Program (PNPs). PNPs are divided into two categories: “enhanced” programs that work in tandem with Express Entry, and “base” programs that work independently of the Express Entry system. Candidates for enhanced programs are drawn from the Express Entry pool.
If you earn a provincial nomination through one of these PNPs, your overall score will be increased by 600 CRS points. This award will propel you to the top of the pool, putting you in a position to receive an ITA in a later Express Entry draw. You can then apply to the federal government for permanent residence once you get your certificate.
Citizens and permanent residents of Canada have the option of sponsoring their spouse, common-law partner, children, parents, and grandparents. Only certain relatives, such as a brother, sister, aunt, or uncle, can be sponsored by Canadians. They are unable to sponsor relatives who are deemed inadmissible due to criminal or medical reasons.
Spouses and common-law partners can be sponsored either from inside Canada or from outside the nation. To be eligible, you must be at least 18 years old and in a committed, genuine relationship with a Canadian who can financially support you and any children you may have. Citizens of Canada can sponsor from overseas, but permanent residents must be present in Canada.
Parents and grandparents of Canadians can apply for permanent residency through the Parents and Grandparents Program (PGP). Currently, the program works like a lottery, with a temporary intake window where IRCC accepts interest to sponsor forms. Candidates are then invited to apply for permanent residence by the immigration service.
The Super Visa, an alternative to the PGP, lets parents and grandparents stay in Canada for up to two years at a time. Canadians who are under the age of 22 can also sponsor their biological or adoptive children.